A newly recognized disease, bacterial leaf scorch affects a wide range of plant species. Oaks, sycamores, and elms are especially at risk. Foliage browning (scorching), followed by defoliation, occurs in mid to late summer. Branch dieback and subsequent decline occurs over a period of years. This eventually leads to the failure of the plant. This problem occurs most commonly on linden, maple, ash and cottonwood. Treatments are available to slow the decline and extend the life of the affected plant, but no cure or preventative measures are available yet.